[Photo Credit: medindia.net]
The definition of Nanoscience and nanotechnology according to nano.gov, are the study and application of extremely small things. They can be used in various fields of medicine or pharmaceutics, environmental monitoring and management, agriculture and food sector, and industrial. It involves the ability to control and observe individual atoms and molecules of all objects on earth. Recently, microbial nanotechnology is being focused on how they help humans with new applications in water, food, medical biology, and immunology. Furthermore, scientists are looking forward to the potentials of microorganisms, being able to utilize them for ‘green synthesis’. ‘Green synthesis’, or the biosynthesis of nanomaterials by microorganisms is emerging as a novel approach towards the ‘greener’ manufacturing rather than the traditional chemical and physical approach.
The field of microbiology deals with the microscopic analysis of microorganisms that are both living and nonliving. Among all microorganisms, bacteria and microalgae are the main microorganisms used for nano biosynthesis, foremost biomedical applications. Some bacteria and microalgae have shown the capability and the potential to synthesize unique nanostructures such as bacterial nanowire and bacterial nanocellulose. It is because nano-particles could be biosynthesized when microorganisms seize targeted irons from their environment and then turn the ion metals to an element mental through the enzymes created by cell activities. Bacteria have been proved that they are capable of mobilization and immobilization of metals.
[Photo Credit: ResearchGate.com]
However, despite its benefit of providing a greener way to produce nanoparticles, there are also challenges that must be figured out. One of the main challenges is the control of the dispersity of nanostructures. According to the report written by scientists Gerardo Grasso, Daniela Zane, and Roberto Dragone, dispersity, the size distribution of nanoparticles, is a major property that affects the particle’s behaviors in fluids. It strongly influences electronic and optical properties and the isolation and purification of its plural form. They stated that improvement and optimization of extraction and purification protocols are required both for intracellular and extracellular biosynthesis. Moreover, they also suggest that the challenge can be overcome by the adoption of suitable strategies, microbial biosynthesis of nanoparticles for improvement. Selection of appropriate microbial strains, optimization of culturing conditions, and uses of genetic engineering tools can be another solution for the challenges that bacterial nanotechnology will face.
 Grasso, Gerardo, et al. “Microbial Nanotechnology: Challenges and Prospects for Green
Biocatalytic Synthesis of Nanoscale Materials for Sensoristic and Biomedical
Applications.” Nanomaterials (Basel, Switzerland), MDPI, 18 Dec. 2019,
 Iravani, Siavash. “Bacteria in Nanoparticle Synthesis: Current Status and Future Prospects.”
International Scholarly Research Notices, Hindawi, 29 Oct. 2014,
 “What Is Nanotechnology?” National Nanotechnology Initiative,